Schematic of VolMIP experiments tackling different aspects of the climatic response to volcanic forcing. 1: volc-long-eq, 2: volc-pinatubo-full,
3: volc-pinatubo-surf, 4: volc-pinatubo-strat, 5: volc-long-hlN/-hlS, 6: volc-cluster-ctrl/-mill/-21C, 7: volc-pinatubo-slab, 8: volc-pinatubo-ini
VolMIP defines a set of idealized volcanic perturbations based on historical eruptions.
Volcanic forcing is derived from radiation parameters of documented eruptions and the experiments neglect information
about the actual climate conditions when these events occurred. The experiments are designed as ensemble simulations, with
sets of initial climate states sampled from an unperturbed preindustrial simulation. The selection of initial conditions
specifically accounts for the concomitant phasing of two dominant modes of climate variability: the El Nino-Southern Oscillation
- the most important source of interannual climate variability - and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation - a measure of
the strength of the oceanic thermohaline circulation.

VolMIP experiments are designed based on a multifold strategy:
volc-short: these experiments focus on the systematical assessment of uncertainty and inter-model differences in the
                    seasonal-to-interannual climatic response to an  idealized 1991 Pinatubo-like  eruption, chosen as representative
                    of the largest magnitude of volcanic events that occurred during the observational period.

volc-long: these experiments are designed to systematically investigate inter-model differences in the long-term (up to the
                  decadal time scale) dynamical climate response to volcanic eruptions that are characterized by a high signal-to-noise
                  ratio in the response of global-average surface temperature.

volc-cluster:designed to investigate the climatic response to a close succession of strong volcanic eruptions (so-called
                      " volcanic cluster")..

The main goal of volc-long and volc-cluster experiments is to assess how volcanic perturbation signals propagate within the simulated
climates, e.g., into the subsurface ocean, the associated determinant processes and their representation across models.

Identification of consensus forcing input data for both types of experiments is an integral part of VolMIP
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Model Intercomparison Project on the climatic response to Volcanic forcing
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